What is an interview? – Interviews are a social research tool that aims to find useful data, including a relationship (understood as the interaction of action and communication) between at least two topics that explain different roles, interviewer and interviewer. Either; this report should be excluded for the purpose of evaluating any performance and/or voluntary conduct or conduct, affecting individuals or groups. So it is characterized by strong flexibility, both in the form of dialogue interaction between the two branches, the goal of obtaining information and the sequence and the form of questions asked. It can be studied in advance or completely structured, that is, without question, based on open dialogue on a predetermined topic or strictly structured and standardized. In many cases interviewing is a questionnaire’s administration feature, which is certainly a popular tool, but not the only one that can be used to collect data within an interview. To properly conduct an interview for a particular type of object or event, and to obtain information and data, it is best to follow a few important steps, the basic of building a machine:
- Performing a sample of the investigation universe to identify the audience for the interview
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the materials themselves to understand if this is the most appropriate way to achieve the goals set in the context of the operation;
- For consideration, once the interview has been selected as the most appropriate and appropriate tool, it is possible to conduct a variety of interviews and identify the person with the most satisfactory answer for the type of investigation.
- Schedule interviews with a series of structured patterns and structure of the grid of questions that you simply want to address within the timeframe you expect.
How to choose the most appropriate form of an interview?
According to a broader sociological perspective, interviews can be classified into three distinct criteria:
- Presence or absence of eye contact;
- Distribution of power among actors;
- To grant the degree of independence to the interviewer
Priority for one class of criteria compared to the other depends on the primary goals, the type of research to conduct and, above all, the specific context in which the interview is conducted.
1. The interviewer may have criteria, interview telephone or face-to-face information regarding the “absence or absence of visual communication.”
Telephone interviews were provided for direct dialogue between the two actors involved, but only through oral exchange based on linguistic and vocal stimulation. Furthermore, this interaction must be characterized by a short period of time for it to be effective, and as a result, the detection device must be very structured and extremely simple. Telephone interviews allow for less application time and lower costs. Face-to-face or “face-to-face” interviews provide direct communication between two or more negotiators who can exploit all the benefits and possibilities of interpersonal communication. This allows greater freedom for the interviewer, who can make unexpected interventions and use an unprotected detection tool.
2. Interviewing about this criterion of “the type of power distribution in the relationship” interview can be distinguished between direct and direct-direct interviews, respectively.
Direct interviews are those interviews where the interviewer gains a pre-eminent position in interviewing and is able to manage the communication flow and conduct the conversation. If not handled properly and for specific purposes, directness may bind the content and invalidate the interview. Direct-Interviews are those interviews that are characterized by a structure where the interviewer is in a pre-eminent position in the interview. It is extremely difficult to achieve non-directness in the absolute sense, given that it can be considered as utopia.
3. With this standard of “degree of freedom given to the interviewer,” the interview can be distinguished between a structured, semi-structured, and structured interview.
Structured (or standard) interviews are interviews that are characterized by the use of highly structured and coded questions and a tight “distance” between the two interplay topics. Semi-structured and non-structured interviews are interviews that guarantee moderate or strong interpersonal involvement between the interviewer and the interviewer, and poor standardization of both the question and answer. The level of freedom given to the actors during the conversation is high, even though the results obtained are moderately common, as they are conditioned by the clarity of their subject and interview conditions. The complementary and evenly shared other classification methodology of the former one separates the interviewers according to the number of topics included in the interview. In this case, the interview can be distinguished between:
- A two-person interview, which corresponds to the best form of interviewing and interviewing involving the interviewer;
- The tandem interview, which consists of two interviews and one interview;
- Consist of panel interviews, an interviewer’s commission, and only one interview;
- Mass interview, which sees only one interviewer associated with a group of eyewitnesses;
- Group interviews, in which the interviewer identifies individual responses but is able to condition them, in the presence of a “natural” or social group;
- Group interviews, which coincide with an interview where “group dynamics” are the subject of the survey